OpenWRT Backend

The OpenWrt backend allows to generate OpenWRT compatible configurations.

Note

This backend purposely generates only named UCI blocks.

UCI stands for Unified Configuration Interface and it is the default configuration system installed on OpenWRT and its fork LEDE.

Initialization

OpenWrt.__init__(config, templates=[], context={})
Parameters:
  • configdict containing valid NetJSON DeviceConfiguration
  • templateslist containing NetJSON dictionaries that will be used as a base for the main config, defaults to empty list
  • contextdict containing configuration variables
Raises:

TypeError – raised if config is not of type dict or if templates is not of type list

Initialization example:

from netjsonconfig import OpenWrt

router = OpenWrt({
    "general": {
        "hostname": "HomeRouter"
    }
})

If you are unsure about the meaning of the initalization parameters, read about the following basic concepts:

Render method

OpenWrt.render(files=True)

Converts the configuration dictionary into the corresponding configuration format

Parameters:files – whether to include “additional files” in the output or not; defaults to True
Returns:string with output

Code example:

from netjsonconfig import OpenWrt

o = OpenWrt({
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "eth0.1",
            "type": "ethernet",
            "addresses": [
                {
                    "address": "192.168.1.1",
                    "mask": 24,
                    "proto": "static",
                    "family": "ipv4"
                },
                {
                    "address": "192.168.2.1",
                    "mask": 24,
                    "proto": "static",
                    "family": "ipv4"
                },
                {
                    "address": "fd87::1",
                    "mask": 128,
                    "proto": "static",
                    "family": "ipv6"
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
})
print(o.render())

Will return the following output:

package network

config interface 'eth0_1'
        option ifname 'eth0.1'
        option proto 'static'
        option ipaddr '192.168.1.1'
        option netmask '255.255.255.0'

config interface 'eth0_1_2'
        option ifname 'eth0.1'
        option proto 'static'
        option ipaddr '192.168.2.1'
        option netmask '255.255.255.0'

config interface 'eth0_1_3'
        option ifname 'eth0.1'
        option proto 'static'
        option ip6addr 'fd87::1/128'

Generate method

OpenWrt.generate()

Returns a BytesIO instance representing an in-memory tar.gz archive containing the native router configuration.

Returns:in-memory tar.gz archive, instance of BytesIO

Example:

>>> import tarfile
>>> from netjsonconfig import OpenWrt
>>>
>>> o = OpenWrt({
...     "interfaces": [
...         {
...             "name": "eth0",
...             "type": "ethernet",
...             "addresses": [
...                 {
...                     "proto": "dhcp",
...                     "family": "ipv4"
...                 }
...             ]
...         }
...     ]
... })
>>> stream = o.generate()
>>> print(stream)
<_io.BytesIO object at 0x7fd2287fb410>
>>> tar = tarfile.open(fileobj=stream, mode='r:gz')
>>> print(tar.getmembers())
[<TarInfo 'etc/config/network' at 0x7fd228790250>]

As you can see from this example, the generate method does not write to disk, but returns an instance of io.BytesIO which contains a tar.gz file object with the following file structure:

/etc/config/network

The configuration archive can then be written to disk, served via HTTP or uploaded directly on the OpenWRT router where it can be finally “restored” with sysupgrade:

sysupgrade -r <archive>

Note that sysupgrade -r does not apply the configuration, to do this you have to reload the services manually or reboot the router.

Note

the generate method intentionally sets the timestamp of the tar.gz archive and its members to 0 in order to facilitate comparing two different archives: setting the timestamp would infact cause the checksum to be different each time even when contents of the archive are identical.

Write method

OpenWrt.write(name, path='./')

Like generate but writes to disk.

Parameters:
  • name – file name, the tar.gz extension will be added automatically
  • path – directory where the file will be written to, defaults to ./
Returns:

None

Example:

>>> import tarfile
>>> from netjsonconfig import OpenWrt
>>>
>>> o = OpenWrt({
...     "interfaces": [
...         {
...             "name": "eth0",
...             "type": "ethernet",
...             "addresses": [
...                 {
...                     "proto": "dhcp",
...                     "family": "ipv4"
...                 }
...             ]
...         }
...     ]
... })
>>> o.write('dhcp-router', path='/tmp/')

Will write the configuration archive in /tmp/dhcp-router.tar.gz.

JSON method

OpenWrt.json(validate=True, *args, **kwargs)

returns a string formatted as NetJSON DeviceConfiguration; performs validation before returning output;

*args and *kwargs will be passed to json.dumps;

Returns:string

Code example:

>>> from netjsonconfig import OpenWrt
>>>
>>> router = OpenWrt({
...     "general": {
...         "hostname": "HomeRouter"
...     }
... })
>>> print(router.json(indent=4))
{
    "type": "DeviceConfiguration",
    "general": {
        "hostname": "HomeRouter"
    }
}

General settings

The general settings reside in the general key of the configuration dictionary, which follows the NetJSON General object definition (see the link for the detailed specification).

Currently only the hostname option is processed by this backend.

General object extensions

In addition to the default NetJSON General object options, the OpenWrt backend also supports the following custom options:

key name type function
timezone string one of the allowed timezone values (first element of each tuple)

General settings example

The following configuration dictionary:

{
    "general": {
        "hostname": "routerA",
        "timezone": "UTC",
        "ula_prefix": "fd8e:f40a:6701::/48"
    }
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package system

config system 'system'
        option hostname 'routerA'
        option timezone 'UTC'
        option zonename 'UTC'

package network

config globals 'globals'
        option ula_prefix 'fd8e:f40a:6701::/48'

Network interfaces

The network interface settings reside in the interfaces key of the configuration dictionary, which must contain a list of NetJSON interface objects (see the link for the detailed specification).

There are 3 main type of interfaces:

  • network interfaces: may be of type ethernet, virtual, loopback or other
  • wireless interfaces: must be of type wireless
  • bridge interfaces: must be of type bridge

Interface object extensions

In addition to the default NetJSON Interface object options, the OpenWrt backend also supports the following custom options for every type of interface:

key name type allowed values
network string logical interface name (UCI specific)

In the following sections some examples of the most common use cases are shown.

Loopback interface example

The following configuration dictionary:

{
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "lo",
            "type": "loopback",
            "addresses": [
                {
                    "address": "127.0.0.1",
                    "mask": 8,
                    "proto": "static",
                    "family": "ipv4"
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package network

config interface 'lo'
        option ifname 'lo'
        option ipaddr '127.0.0.1'
        option netmask '255.0.0.0'
        option proto 'static'

Dualstack (IPv4 & IPv6)

The following configuration dictionary:

{
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "eth0",
            "type": "ethernet",
            "addresses": [
                {
                    "family": "ipv4",
                    "proto": "static",
                    "address": "10.27.251.1",
                    "mask": 24
                },
                {
                    "family": "ipv6",
                    "proto": "static",
                    "address": "fdb4:5f35:e8fd::1",
                    "mask": 48
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package network

config interface 'eth0'
        option ifname 'eth0'
        option ipaddr '10.27.251.1'
        option netmask '255.255.255.0'
        option proto 'static'

config interface 'eth0_2'
        option ifname 'eth0'
        option ip6addr 'fdb4:5f35:e8fd::1/48'
        option proto 'static'

DNS servers and search domains

DNS servers can be set using dns_servers, while search domains can be set using dns_search.

If specified, these values will be automatically added in every interface which has at least one static ip address; interfaces which have no ip address configured or are using dynamic ip address configuration won’t get the dns option in the UCI output, eg:

{
    "dns_servers": ["10.11.12.13", "8.8.8.8"],
    "dns_search": ["openwisp.org", "netjson.org"],
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "eth0",
            "type": "ethernet",
            "addresses": [
                {
                    "address": "192.168.1.1",
                    "mask": 24,
                    "proto": "static",
                    "family": "ipv4"
                }
            ]
        },
        # the following interface has DHCP enabled
        # and it won't contain the dns setting
        {
            "name": "eth1",
            "type": "ethernet",
            "addresses": [
                {
                    "proto": "dhcp",
                    "family": "ipv4"
                }
            ]
        },
        # the following VLAN interface won't get
        # the dns nor the dns_search settings
        {
            "name": "eth1.31",
            "type": "ethernet"
        }
    ]
}

Will return the following UCI output:

package network

config interface 'eth0'
        option dns '10.11.12.13 8.8.8.8'
        option dns_search 'openwisp.org netjson.org'
        option ifname 'eth0'
        option ipaddr '192.168.1.1'
        option netmask '255.255.255.0'
        option proto 'static'

config interface 'eth1'
        option dns_search 'openwisp.org netjson.org'
        option ifname 'eth1'
        option proto 'dhcp'

config interface 'eth1_31'
        option ifname 'eth1.31'
        option proto 'none'

DHCP ipv6 ethernet interface

The following configuration dictionary:

{
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "eth0",
            "network": "lan",
            "type": "ethernet",
            "addresses": [
                {
                    "proto": "dhcp",
                    "family": "ipv6"
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package network

config interface 'lan'
        option ifname 'eth0'
        option proto 'dchpv6'

Using different protocols

OpenWRT and LEDE support many protocols (pppoe, pppoa, pptp, l2tp, ecc) and the list of supported protocols evolves over time.

OpenWISP and netjsonconfig try to stay out of your way by leaving you maximum flexibility to use any protocol and any configuration option you may need, just set type to other, then proceed by setting proto and any other configuration option according to your needs, see the example below.

PPPoE proto example

The following configuration dictionary:

{
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "type": "other",
            "name": "eth0",
            "network": "wan",
            "proto": "pppoe",
            "username": "<username>",
            "password": "<password>"
        }
    ]
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package network

config interface 'wan'
        option ifname 'eth0'
        option password '<password>'
        option proto 'ppoe'
        option username '<username>'

Bridge settings

Interfaces of type bridge can contain a few options that are specific for network bridges:

  • bridge_members: interfaces that are members of the bridge
  • stp: spanning tree protocol

The OpenWrt backend NetJSON extensions for bridge interfaces:

key name type default allowed values
igmp_snooping boolean True sets the multicast_snooping kernel setting for a bridge

Bridge interface example

The following configuration dictionary:

{
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "eth0.1",
            "network": "lan",
            "type": "ethernet"
        },
        {
            "name": "eth0.2",
            "network": "wan",
            "type": "ethernet"
        },
        {
            "name": "lan_bridge",  # will be named "br-lan_bridge" by OpenWRT
            "type": "bridge",
            "stp": True,  # enable spanning tree protocol
            "igmp_snooping": True,  # enable imgp snooping
            "bridge_members": [
                "eth0.1",
                "eth0.2"
            ],
            "addresses": [
                {
                    "address": "172.17.0.2",
                    "mask": 24,
                    "proto": "static",
                    "family": "ipv4"
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package network

config interface 'lan'
        option ifname 'eth0.1'
        option proto 'none'

config interface 'wan'
        option ifname 'eth0.2'
        option proto 'none'

config interface 'lan_bridge'
        option ifname 'eth0.1 eth0.2'
        option igmp_snooping '1'
        option ipaddr '172.17.0.2'
        option netmask '255.255.255.0'
        option proto 'static'
        option type 'bridge'
        option stp '1'

Wireless settings

Interfaces of type wireless may contain a lot of different combination of settings to configure wireless connectivity: from simple access points, to 802.1x authentication, 802.11s mesh networks, adhoc mesh networks, WDS repeaters and much more.

The OpenWrt backend NetJSON extensions for wireless interfaces:

key name type default allowed values
network array [] attached networks; if left blank will be automatically determined

Some extensions are applicable only when mode is access_point:

key name type default allowed values
wmm boolean True enables WMM (802.11e) support
isolate boolean False isolate wireless clients from one another
macfilter string disable ACL policy, accepts: “disable”, “allow” and “deny”
maclist array [] mac addresses filtered according to macfilter policy

These extensions must be used the wireless object of a wireless interface eg:

{
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "wlan0",
            "type": "wireless",
            "wireless": {
                "radio": "radio0",
                "mode": "access_point",
                "ssid": "myWiFi",
                # OpenWrt backend NetJSON extensions
                "wmm": True,
                "isolate": True
            }
        }
    ]
}

The same applies for custom configuration options not included in the OpenWrt backend schema:

{
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "wlan0",
            "type": "wireless",
            "wireless": {
                "radio": "radio0",
                "mode": "access_point",
                "ssid": "myWiFi",
                # custom configuration options not defined
                # in the OpenWrt backend schema
                "beacon_int": 200,
                "noscan": True,
                "custom1": "made-up-for-example-purposes",
            }
        }
    ]
}

In the following sections some examples of the most common use cases are shown.

Wireless access point

The following configuration dictionary represent one of the most common wireless access point configuration:

{
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "wlan0",
            "type": "wireless",
            "wireless": {
                "radio": "radio0",
                "mode": "access_point",
                "ssid": "myWiFi",
                "wmm": True,  # 802.11e
                "isolate": True  # client isolation
            }
        }
    ]
}

UCI output:

package network

config interface 'wlan0'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option proto 'none'

package wireless

config wifi-iface 'wifi_wlan0'
        option device 'radio0'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option isolate '1'
        option mode 'ap'
        option network 'wlan0'
        option ssid 'myWiFi'
        option wmm '1'

Note

the network option of the wifi-iface directive is filled in automatically but can be overridden if needed by setting the network option in the wireless section of the configuration dictionary. The next example shows how to do this.

Wireless attached to a different network

In some cases you might want to attach a wireless interface to a different network, for example, you might want to attach a wireless interface to a bridge:

{
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "eth0",
            "type": "ethernet"
        },
        {
            "name": "wlan0",
            "type": "wireless",
            "wireless": {
                "radio": "radio0",
                "mode": "access_point",
                "ssid": "wifi service",
                # the wireless interface will be attached to the "lan" network
                "network": ["lan"]
            }
        },
        {
            "name": "lan",  # the bridge will be named br-lan by OpenWRT
            "type": "bridge",
            "bridge_members": [
                "eth0",
                "wlan0"
            ],
            "addresses": [
                {
                    "address": "192.168.0.2",
                    "mask": 24,
                    "proto": "static",
                    "family": "ipv4"
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package network

config interface 'eth0'
        option ifname 'eth0'
        option proto 'none'

config interface 'wlan0'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option proto 'none'

config interface 'lan'
        option ifname 'eth0 wlan0'
        option ipaddr '192.168.0.2'
        option netmask '255.255.255.0'
        option proto 'static'
        option type 'bridge'

package wireless

config wifi-iface 'wifi_wlan0'
        option device 'radio0'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option mode 'ap'
        option network 'lan'
        option ssid 'wifi service'

Wireless access point with macfilter ACL

The OpenWrt backend supports a custom NetJSON extension for wireless access point interfaces: macfilter (read more about macfilter and maclist on the OpenWRT documentation for Wireless configuration).

In the following example we ban two mac addresses from connecting to a wireless access point:

{
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "wlan0",
            "type": "wireless",
            "wireless": {
                "radio": "radio0",
                "mode": "access_point",
                "ssid": "MyWifiAP",
                "macfilter": "deny",
                "maclist": [
                    "E8:94:F6:33:8C:1D",
                    "42:6c:8f:95:0f:00"
                ]
            }
        }
    ]
}

UCI output:

package network

config interface 'wlan0'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option proto 'none'

package wireless

config wifi-iface 'wifi_wlan0'
        option device 'radio0'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option macfilter 'deny'
        list maclist 'E8:94:F6:33:8C:1D'
        list maclist '42:6c:8f:95:0f:00'
        option mode 'ap'
        option network 'wlan0'
        option ssid 'MyWifiAP'

Wireless mesh (802.11s) example

Setting up 802.11s interfaces is fairly simple, in the following example we bridge eth0 with mesh0, the latter being a layer2 802.11s wireless interface.

Note

in 802.11s mesh mode the ssid property is not required, while mesh_id is mandatory.

{
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "eth0",
            "type": "ethernet"
        },
        {
            "name": "mesh0",
            "type": "wireless",
            "wireless": {
                "radio": "radio0",
                "mode": "802.11s",
                "mesh_id": "ninux",
                "network": ["lan"]
            }
        },
        {
            "name": "lan",
            "type": "bridge",
            "bridge_members": ["eth0", "mesh0"],
            "addresses": [
                {
                    "address": "192.168.0.1",
                    "mask": 24,
                    "proto": "static",
                    "family": "ipv4"
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

UCI output:

package network

config interface 'eth0'
        option ifname 'eth0'
        option proto 'none'

config interface 'mesh0'
        option ifname 'mesh0'
        option proto 'none'

config interface 'lan'
        option ifname 'eth0 mesh0'
        option ipaddr '192.168.0.1'
        option netmask '255.255.255.0'
        option proto 'static'
        option type 'bridge'

package wireless

config wifi-iface 'wifi_mesh0'
        option device 'radio0'
        option ifname 'mesh0'
        option mesh_id 'ninux'
        option mode 'mesh'
        option network 'lan'

Wireless mesh (adhoc) example

In wireless adhoc mode, the bssid property is required.

The following example:

{
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "wlan0",
            "type": "wireless",
            "wireless": {
                "radio": "radio0",
                "ssid": "freifunk",
                "mode": "adhoc",
                "bssid": "02:b8:c0:00:00:00"
            }
        }
    ]
}

Will result in:

package network

config interface 'wlan0'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option proto 'none'

package wireless

config wifi-iface 'wifi_wlan0'
        option bssid '02:b8:c0:00:00:00'
        option device 'radio0'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option mode 'adhoc'
        option network 'wlan0'
        option ssid 'freifunk'

WDS repeater example

In the following example we show how to configure a WDS station and repeat the signal:

{
    "interfaces": [
        # client
        {
            "name": "wlan0",
            "type": "wireless",
            "wireless": {
                "mode": "station",
                "radio": "radio0",
                "network": ["wds_bridge"],
                "ssid": "FreeRomaWifi",
                "bssid": "C0:4A:00:2D:05:FD",
                "wds": True
            }
        },
        # repeater access point
        {
            "name": "wlan1",
            "type": "wireless",
            "wireless": {
                "mode": "access_point",
                "radio": "radio1",
                "network": ["wds_bridge"],
                "ssid": "FreeRomaWifi"
            }
        },
        # WDS bridge
        {
            "name": "br-wds",
            "network": "wds_bridge",
            "type": "bridge",
            "addresses": [
                {
                    "proto": "dhcp",
                    "family": "ipv4"
                }
            ],
            "bridge_members": [
                "wlan0",
                "wlan1",
            ]
        }
    ]
}

Will result in:

package network

config interface 'wlan0'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option proto 'none'

config interface 'wlan1'
        option ifname 'wlan1'
        option proto 'none'

config interface 'br_wds'
        option ifname 'wlan0 wlan1'
        option network 'wds_bridge'
        option proto 'dhcp'
        option type 'bridge'

package wireless

config wifi-iface 'wifi_wlan0'
        option bssid 'C0:4A:00:2D:05:FD'
        option device 'radio0'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option mode 'sta'
        option network 'wds_bridge'
        option ssid 'FreeRomaWifi'
        option wds '1'

config wifi-iface 'wifi_wlan1'
        option device 'radio1'
        option ifname 'wlan1'
        option mode 'ap'
        option network 'wds_bridge'
        option ssid 'FreeRomaWifi'

WPA2 Personal (Pre-Shared Key)

The following example shows a typical wireless access point using WPA2 Personal (Pre-Shared Key) encryption:

{
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "wlan0",
            "type": "wireless",
            "wireless": {
                "radio": "radio0",
                "mode": "access_point",
                "ssid": "wpa2-personal",
                "encryption": {
                    "protocol": "wpa2_personal",
                    # possible cipher values are:
                    #   "auto", "tkip", "ccmp", and "tkip+ccmp"
                    "cipher": "tkip+ccmp",
                    "key": "passphrase012345"
                }
            }
        }
    ]
}

UCI output:

package network

config interface 'wlan0'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option proto 'none'

package wireless

config wifi-iface 'wifi_wlan0'
        option device 'radio0'
        option encryption 'psk2+tkip+ccmp'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option key 'passphrase012345'
        option mode 'ap'
        option network 'wlan0'
        option ssid 'wpa2-personal'

WPA2 Enterprise (802.1x) ap

The following example shows a typical wireless access point using WPA2 Enterprise (802.1x) security on OpenWRT, you can use this type of configuration for networks like eduroam:

{
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "wlan0",
            "type": "wireless",
            "wireless": {
                "radio": "radio0",
                "mode": "access_point",
                "ssid": "eduroam",
                "encryption": {
                    "protocol": "wpa2_enterprise",
                    "cipher": "auto",
                    "key": "radius_secret",
                    "server": "192.168.0.1",
                    "port": 1812,
                    "acct_server": "192.168.0.2",
                    "acct_port": 1813,
                    "nasid": "hostname"
                }
            }
        }
    ]
}

UCI Output:

package network

config interface 'wlan0'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option proto 'none'

package wireless

config wifi-iface 'wifi_wlan0'
        option acct_port '1813'
        option acct_server '192.168.0.2'
        option device 'radio0'
        option encryption 'wpa2'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option key 'radius_secret'
        option mode 'ap'
        option network 'wlan0'
        option port '1812'
        option server '192.168.0.1'
        option ssid 'eduroam'
        option nasid 'hostname'

WPA2 Enterprise (802.1x) client

WPA2 Enterprise (802.1x) client example:

{
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "wlan0",
            "type": "wireless",
            "wireless": {
                "radio": "radio0",
                "mode": "station",
                "ssid": "enterprise-client",
                "bssid": "00:26:b9:20:5f:09",
                "encryption": {
                    "protocol": "wpa2_enterprise",
                    "cipher": "auto",
                    "eap_type": "tls",
                    "identity": "test-identity",
                    "password": "test-password",
                }
            }
        }
    ]
}

UCI Output:

package network

config interface 'wlan0'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option proto 'none'

package wireless

config wifi-iface 'wifi_wlan0'
        option bssid '00:26:b9:20:5f:09'
        option device 'radio0'
        option eap_type 'tls'
        option encryption 'wpa2'
        option identity 'test-identity'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option mode 'sta'
        option network 'wlan0'
        option password 'test-password'
        option ssid 'enterprise-client'

Radio settings

The radio settings reside in the radio key of the configuration dictionary, which must contain a list of NetJSON radio objects (see the link for the detailed specification).

Radio object extensions

In addition to the default NetJSON Radio object options, the OpenWrt backend also requires setting the following additional options for each radio in the list:

key name type allowed values
driver string mac80211, madwifi, ath5k, ath9k, broadcom
protocol string 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11ac

Radio example

The following configuration dictionary:

{
    "radios": [
        {
            "name": "radio0",
            "phy": "phy0",
            "driver": "mac80211",
            "protocol": "802.11n",
            "channel": 11,
            "channel_width": 20,
            "tx_power": 5,
            "country": "IT"
        },
        {
            "name": "radio1",
            "phy": "phy1",
            "driver": "mac80211",
            "protocol": "802.11n",
            "channel": 36,
            "channel_width": 20,
            "tx_power": 4,
            "country": "IT"
        }
    ]
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package wireless

config wifi-device 'radio0'
        option channel '11'
        option country 'IT'
        option htmode 'HT20'
        option hwmode '11g'
        option phy 'phy0'
        option txpower '5'
        option type 'mac80211'

config wifi-device 'radio1'
        option channel '36'
        option country 'IT'
        option disabled '0'
        option htmode 'HT20'
        option hwmode '11a'
        option phy 'phy1'
        option txpower '4'
        option type 'mac80211'

Automatic channel selection example

If you need to use the “automatic channel selection” feature of OpenWRT, you must set the channel to 0 and, unless you are using neither 802.11n nor 802.11ac, you must set the hwmode property to tell OpenWRT which band to use (11g for 2.4 Ghz, 11a for 5 GHz).

The following example sets “automatic channel selection” for two radios, the first radio uses 802.11n in the 2.4 GHz band, while the second uses 802.11ac in the 5 GHz band.

{
    "radios": [
        {
            "name": "radio0",
            "phy": "phy0",
            "driver": "mac80211",
            "protocol": "802.11n",
            "channel": 0,  # 0 stands for auto
            "hwmode": "11g",  # must set this explicitly, 11g means 2.4 GHz band
            "channel_width": 20
        },
        {
            "name": "radio1",
            "phy": "phy1",
            "driver": "mac80211",
            "protocol": "802.11ac",
            "channel": 0,  # 0 stands for auto
            "hwmode": "11a",  # must set this explicitly, 11a means 5 GHz band
            "channel_width": 80
        }
    ]
}

UCI output:

package wireless

config wifi-device 'radio0'
        option channel 'auto'
        option htmode 'HT20'
        option hwmode '11g'
        option phy 'phy0'
        option type 'mac80211'

config wifi-device 'radio1'
        option channel 'auto'
        option htmode 'VHT80'
        option hwmode '11a'
        option phy 'phy1'
        option type 'mac80211'

802.11ac example

In the following example we show how to configure an 802.11ac capable radio:

{
    "radios": [
        {
            "name": "radio0",
            "phy": "phy0",
            "driver": "mac80211",
            "protocol": "802.11ac",
            "channel": 36,
            "channel_width": 80,
        }
    ]
}

UCI output:

package wireless

config wifi-device 'radio0'
        option channel '36'
        option htmode 'VHT80'
        option hwmode '11a'
        option phy 'phy0'
        option type 'mac80211'

Static Routes

The static routes settings reside in the routes key of the configuration dictionary, which must contain a list of NetJSON Static Route objects (see the link for the detailed specification).

Static route object extensions

In addition to the default NetJSON Route object options, the OpenWrt backend also allows to define the following optional settings:

key name type default description
type string unicast unicast, local, broadcast, multicast, unreachable prohibit, blackhole, anycast
mtu string None MTU for route, only numbers are allowed
table string None Routing table id, only numbers are allowed
onlink boolean False When enabled, gateway is on link even if the gateway does not match any interface prefix

Static route example

The following configuration dictionary:

{
    "routes": [
        {
            "device": "eth1",
            "destination": "192.168.4.1/24",
            "next": "192.168.2.2",
            "cost": 2,
            "source": "192.168.1.10",
            "table": "2",
            "onlink": True,
            "mtu": "1450"
        },
        {
            "device": "eth1",
            "destination": "fd89::1/128",
            "next": "fd88::1",
            "cost": 0,
        }
    ]
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package network

config route 'route1'
        option gateway '192.168.2.2'
        option interface 'eth1'
        option metric '2'
        option mtu '1450'
        option netmask '255.255.255.0'
        option onlink '1'
        option source '192.168.1.10'
        option table '2'
        option target '192.168.4.1'

config route6 'route2'
        option gateway 'fd88::1'
        option interface 'eth1'
        option metric '0'
        option target 'fd89::1/128'

Policy routing

The policy routing settings reside in the ip_rule key of the configuration dictionary, which is a custom NetJSON extension not present in the original NetJSON RFC.

The ip_rule key must contain a list of rules, each rule allows the following options:

key name type
in string
out string
src string
tos string
mark string
invert boolean
lookup string
goto integer
action string

For the function and meaning of each key consult the relevant OpenWrt documentation about rule directives.

Policy routing example

The following configuration dictionary:

{
    "ip_rules": [
        {
            "in": "eth0",
            "out": "eth1",
            "src": "192.168.1.0/24",
            "dest": "192.168.2.0/24",
            "tos": 2,
            "mark": "0x0/0x1",
            "invert": True,
            "lookup": "0",
            "action": "blackhole"
        },
        {
            "src": "192.168.1.0/24",
            "dest": "192.168.3.0/24",
            "goto": 0
        },
        {
            "in": "vpn",
            "dest": "fdca:1234::/64",
            "action": "prohibit"
        },
        {
            "in": "vpn",
            "src": "fdca:1235::/64",
            "action": "prohibit"
        }
    ]
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package network

config rule 'rule1'
        option action 'blackhole'
        option dest '192.168.2.0/24'
        option in 'eth0'
        option invert '1'
        option lookup '0'
        option mark '0x0/0x1'
        option out 'eth1'
        option src '192.168.1.0/24'
        option tos '2'

config rule 'rule2'
        option dest '192.168.3.0/24'
        option goto '0'
        option src '192.168.1.0/24'

config rule6 'rule3'
        option action 'prohibit'
        option dest 'fdca:1234::/64'
        option in 'vpn'

config rule6 'rule4'
        option action 'prohibit'
        option in 'vpn'
        option src 'fdca:1235::/64'

Programmable switch settings

The programmable switch settings reside in the switch key of the configuration dictionary, which is a custom NetJSON extension not present in the original NetJSON RFC.

The switch key must contain a list of dictionaries, all the following keys are required:

key name type
name string
reset boolean
enable_vlan boolean
vlan list

The elements of the vlan list must be dictionaries, all the following keys are required:

key name type
device string
reset boolean
vlan integer
ports string

For the function and meaning of each key consult the relevant OpenWrt documentation about switch directives.

Switch example

The following configuration dictionary:

{
    "switch": [
        {
            "name": "switch0",
            "reset": True,
            "enable_vlan": True,
            "vlan": [
                {
                    "device": "switch0",
                    "vlan": 1,
                    "ports": "0t 2 3 4 5"
                },
                {
                    "device": "switch0",
                    "vlan": 2,
                    "ports": "0t 1"
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package network

config switch 'switch0'
        option enable_vlan '1'
        option name 'switch0'
        option reset '1'

config switch_vlan 'switch0_vlan1'
        option device 'switch0'
        option ports '0t 2 3 4 5'
        option vlan '1'

config switch_vlan 'switch0_vlan2'
        option device 'switch0'
        option ports '0t 1'
        option vlan '2'

NTP settings

The Network Time Protocol settings reside in the ntp key of the configuration dictionary, which is a custom NetJSON extension not present in the original NetJSON RFC.

The ntp key must contain a dictionary, the allowed options are:

key name type function
enabled boolean ntp client enabled
enable_server boolean ntp server enabled
server list list of ntp servers

NTP settings example

The following configuration dictionary:

{
    "ntp": {
    "enabled": True,
    "enable_server": False,
    "server": [
        "0.openwrt.pool.ntp.org",
        "1.openwrt.pool.ntp.org",
        "2.openwrt.pool.ntp.org",
        "3.openwrt.pool.ntp.org"
    ]
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package system

config timeserver 'ntp'
        list server '0.openwrt.pool.ntp.org'
        list server '1.openwrt.pool.ntp.org'
        list server '2.openwrt.pool.ntp.org'
        list server '3.openwrt.pool.ntp.org'
        option enable_server '0'
        option enabled '1'

LED settings

The led settings reside in the led key of the configuration dictionary, which is a custom NetJSON extension not present in the original NetJSON RFC.

The led key must contain a list of dictionaries, the allowed options are:

key name type
name string
default boolean
dev string
sysfs string
trigger string
delayoff integer
delayon integer
interval integer
message string
mode string

The required keys are:

  • name
  • sysfs
  • trigger

For the function and meaning of each key consult the relevant OpenWrt documentation about led directives.

LED settings example

The following configuration dictionary:

{
    "led": [
        {
            "name": "USB1",
            "sysfs": "tp-link:green:usb1",
            "trigger": "usbdev",
            "dev": "1-1.1",
            "interval": 50
        },
        {
            "name": "USB2",
            "sysfs": "tp-link:green:usb2",
            "trigger": "usbdev",
            "dev": "1-1.2",
            "interval": 50
        },
        {
            "name": "WLAN2G",
            "sysfs": "tp-link:blue:wlan2g",
            "trigger": "phy0tpt"
        }
    ]
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package system

config led 'led_usb1'
        option dev '1-1.1'
        option interval '50'
        option name 'USB1'
        option sysfs 'tp-link:green:usb1'
        option trigger 'usbdev'

config led 'led_usb2'
        option dev '1-1.2'
        option interval '50'
        option name 'USB2'
        option sysfs 'tp-link:green:usb2'
        option trigger 'usbdev'

config led 'led_wlan2g'
        option name 'WLAN2G'
        option sysfs 'tp-link:blue:wlan2g'
        option trigger 'phy0tpt'

Including custom options

It is very easy to add configuration options that are not explicitly defined in the schema of the OpenWrt backend.

For example, in some cases you may need to define a “ppp” interface, which can use quite a few properties that are not defined in the schema:

from netjsonconfig import OpenWrt

o = OpenWrt({
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "ppp0",
            "type": "other",
            "proto": "ppp",
            "device": "/dev/usb/modem1",
            "username": "user1",
            "password": "pwd0123",
            "keepalive": 3,
            "ipv6": True
        }
    ]
})
print(o.render())

UCI output:

package network

config interface 'ppp0'
        option device '/dev/usb/modem1'
        option ifname 'ppp0'
        option ipv6 '1'
        option keepalive '3'
        option password 'pwd0123'
        option proto 'ppp'
        option username 'user1'

Including custom lists

Under specific circumstances, OpenWRT allows adding configuration options in the form of lists. Many of these UCI options are not defined in the JSON-Schema of the OpenWrt backend, but the schema allows adding custom properties.

The OpenWrt backend recognizes list options for the following sections:

  • interface settings
  • ip address settings
  • wireless settings
  • radio settings

Interface list setting example

The following example shows how to set a list of ip6class options:

o = OpenWrt({
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "eth0",
            "type": "ethernet",
            "ip6class": ["wan6", "backbone"]
        }
    ]
})
print(o.render())

UCI Output:

package network

config interface 'eth0'
        option ifname 'eth0'
        list ip6class 'wan6'
        list ip6class 'backbone'
        option proto 'none'

Address list setting example

The following example shows how to set a list of dhcp reqopts settings:

o = OpenWrt({
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "eth0",
            "type": "ethernet",
            "addresses": [
                {
                    "proto": "dhcp",
                    "family": "ipv4",
                    "reqopts": ["43", "54"]
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
})
print(o.render())

UCI Output:

package network

config interface 'eth0'
        option ifname 'eth0'
        option proto 'dhcp'
        list reqopts '43'
        list reqopts '54'

Radio list setting example

The following example shows how to set a list of advanced capabilities supported by the radio using ht_capab:

o = OpenWrt({
    "radios": [
        {
            "name": "radio0",
            "phy": "phy0",
            "driver": "mac80211",
            "protocol": "802.11n",
            "channel": 1,
            "channel_width": 20,
            "ht_capab": ["SMPS-STATIC", "SHORT-GI-20"]
        }
    ]
})
print(o.render())

UCI output:

package wireless

config wifi-device 'radio0'
        option channel '1'
        list ht_capab 'SMPS-STATIC'
        list ht_capab 'SHORT-GI-20'
        option htmode 'HT20'
        option hwmode '11g'
        option phy 'phy0'
        option type 'mac80211'

Wireless list setting example

The following example shows how to set the supported basic rates of a wireless interface using basic_rate:

o = OpenWrt({
    "interfaces": [
        {
            "name": "wlan0",
            "type": "wireless",
            "wireless": {
                "radio": "radio0",
                "mode": "access_point",
                "ssid": "open",
                "basic_rate": ["6000", "9000"]
            }
        }
    ]
})
print(o.render())

UCI output:

package network

config interface 'wlan0'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option proto 'none'

package wireless

config wifi-iface 'wifi_wlan0'
        list basic_rate '6000'
        list basic_rate '9000'
        option device 'radio0'
        option ifname 'wlan0'
        option mode 'ap'
        option network 'wlan0'
        option ssid 'open'

Including additional files

The OpenWrt backend supports inclusion of arbitrary plain text files through the files key of the configuration dictionary. The value of the files key must be a list in which each item is a dictionary representing a file, each dictionary is structured as follows:

key name type required function
path string yes filesystem path, will be encoded in the tar.gz archive
contents string yes plain text contents of the file, new lines must be encoded as \n
mode string yes filesystem permissions, defaults to 0644

The files key of the configuration dictionary is a custom NetJSON extension not present in the original NetJSON RFC.

Warning

The files are included in the output of the render method unless you pass files=False, eg: openwrt.render(files=False)

Plain file example

The following example code will generate an archive with one file in /etc/crontabs/root:

from netjsonconfig import OpenWrt

o = OpenWrt({
    "files": [
        {
            "path": "/etc/crontabs/root",
            "mode": "0644",
            # new lines must be escaped with ``\n``
            "contents": '* * * * * echo "test" > /etc/testfile\n'
                        '* * * * * echo "test2" > /etc/testfile2'
        }
    ]
})
o.generate()

Executable script file example

The following example will create an executable shell script:

o = OpenWrt({
    "files": [
        {
            "path": "/bin/hello_world",
            "mode": "0755",
            "contents": "#!/bin/sh\n"
                        "echo 'Hello world'"
        }
    ]
})
o.generate()

OpenVPN

This backend includes the schema of the OpenVpn backend, inheriting its features.

For details regarding the OpenVPN schema please see OpenVPN backend schema.

Schema additions

The OpenWrt backend adds a few properties to the OpenVPN schema, see below.

key name type default allowed values
disabled boolean False  

OpenVPN example

The following configuration dictionary:

{
    "openvpn": [
        {
            "ca": "ca.pem",
            "cert": "cert.pem",
            "dev": "tap0",
            "dev_type": "tap",
            "dh": "dh.pem",
            "disabled": False,
            "key": "key.pem",
            "mode": "server",
            "name": "test-vpn-server",
            "proto": "udp",
            "tls_server": True
        }
    ]
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package openvpn

config openvpn 'test_vpn_server'
        option ca 'ca.pem'
        option cert 'cert.pem'
        option dev 'tap0'
        option dev_type 'tap'
        option dh 'dh.pem'
        option enabled '1'
        option key 'key.pem'
        option mode 'server'
        option proto 'udp'
        option tls_server '1'

All the other settings

Do you need to include some configuration directives that are not defined in the NetJSON spec nor in the schema of the OpenWrt backend? Don’t panic!

Because netjsonconfig aims to be very flexible, it ships code that will try to render extra parts of the configuration dictionary into meaningful UCI output.

In order to accomplish this, you must add extra keys to the configuration dictionary which have to meet the following requirements:

  • the name of the key must be the name of the package that needs to be configured
  • the value of the key must be a list
  • each element in the list must be a dict
  • each dict MUST contain a key named config_name
  • each dict MAY contain a key named config_value

This feature is best explained with a few examples.

Dropbear example

The following configuration dictionary:

{
    "dropbear": [
        {
            "config_name": "dropbear",
            "config_value": "dropbear_1",
            "PasswordAuth": "on",
            "RootPasswordAuth": "on",
            "Port": 22
        }
    ]
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package dropbear

config dropbear 'dropbear_1'
        option PasswordAuth 'on'
        option Port '22'
        option RootPasswordAuth 'on'

OLSRd2 example

The following configuration dictionary:

{
    "olsrd2": [
        {
            "config_name": "global",
            "config_value": "global",
            "pidfile": "/var/run/olsrd2.pid",
            "lockfile": "/var/lock/olsrd2"
        },
        {
            "config_name": "log",
            "config_value": "log",
            "syslog": "true",
            "stderr": "true",
            "file": "/var/log/olsrd2.log"
        },
        {
            "config_name": "interface",
            "config_value": "olsr2_common",
            "ifname": [
                "loopback",
                "wlan0",
                "wlan1"
            ]
        }
    ]
}

Will be rendered as follows:

package olsrd2

config global 'global'
    option lockfile '/var/lock/olsrd2'
    option pidfile '/var/run/olsrd2.pid'

config log 'log'
    option file '/var/log/olsrd2.log'
    option stderr 'true'
    option syslog 'true'

config interface 'olsr2_common'
    list ifname 'loopback'
    list ifname 'wlan0'
    list ifname 'wlan1'